After viewing this tutorial, the learner will be able to evaluate if a PDF has quality, selectable text.
- Find a PDF that is text selectable and is NOT text selectable.
- Open Clarify-It. Add in main steps and supporting instructions. Add screenshots for each step.
- Add in information about the screenshots so visually impaired users can know what the image contains.
- Export to PDF. Test out different export options between Basic, Chrome and Corporate.
- Run an accessibility check on the PDF using Adobe Acrobat Professional to add in tags.
- Insert PDF into Learning Log and publisher.
Multimedia Principle: All of the images are appropriate and complement the corresponding text.
Clark and Mayer (2011) identify the following characteristics of the multimedia principle:
- Graphics and text are used to present instructional content.
- Graphics are relevant to the instructional purpose rather than decorative.
- Representative graphics are used to illustrate concrete facts, concepts, and their parts. (p. 88)
The images are screenshots that are representative and informative in nature. They are not for decoration, but to instruct and confirm that the user is following the steps correctly. When appropriate, red arrows were included on the image to better illustrate where the learner’s eye should look for emphasis and clarification.
Contiguity Principle: All of the images are close to and/or on the same screen as the corresponding text.
Clark and Mayer (2011) identify the following characteristics of the contiguity principle:
- Screens that place printed text next to the portion of the graphic it describes.
- Text placed next to or within graphics rather than below them (p.111).
One flow of Clarify-It seems to be that text is placed above the image, rather than next to or within it. In this regard, this artifact would fail in that principle. But it does follow the instructional design principle of Proximity as the text and graphic are placed close together to indicate a relationship rather than have big spaces between the two. Also, by keeping the text related to the image but not be contained within the image, a screen reader user can interact with both the text and image and not miss important information. I purposefully added text describing the screenshot for accessibility purposes.
Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2011). E-learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.